Visit Website Neolithic late Stone Age communities in northeastern Africa exchanged hunting for agriculture and made early advances that paved the way for the later development of Egyptian arts and crafts, technology, politics and religion including a great reverence for the dead and possibly a belief in life after death. A southern king, Scorpion, made the first attempts to conquer the northern kingdom around B. A century later, King Menes would subdue the north and unify the country, becoming the first king of the first dynasty. Archaic Early Dynastic Period c.
Gold plates with Phoenician and Etruscan writing You might imagine that something as simple and basic as the alphabet would have been around forever. But of course it hasn't. As you may well know, the elaborate pictures of Egyptian hieroglyphics and the intricate reed-poked-into-clay marks of Mesopotamian cuneiform used to be the way people communicated in writing.
Gradually these were simplified into syllable symbols instead of word symbols, but were still fairly daunting and only a few scholars ever learned to write. We are often told that the Phoenicians invented the alphabet, though some debate this.
Regardless of who put pen to papyrus to create it, the Phoenician contribution was none-the-less major and critical. They were the major sea-traders of the Mediterranean, and they went everywhere. Every country which had a seashore seems to have done trade with them. When the Phoenicians began using the alphabet as a simple and easy way to keep track of their trades, it was exposed to everyone.
And since money and wealth were involved, people were highly motivated to learn the system and make sure it was being accurately written down. This new method proved to be so much better than previous methods that it soon was being used by many people and many languages.
It had been given so much momentum that it could not be stopped. It consisted of 22 consonants. The reader was assumed to speak the language, so they would know what sound to put between the consonants. Of course, looking back at their inscriptions a few thousand years later, it is not so obvious.
That is one reason why you will see different spellings for the same word or name.
The ancient and modern-day translators just did the best they could. Phoenician Alphabet Phoenician alphabet -- note their writing reads right to left, and that some symbols were later re-used and made into vowels.
The refined combination worked very well. It enabled the philosophy of Socrates and the theater plays of Euripides -- among many other great works of literature -- to be passed down to us. Writing On the Incirli Stela, Greek writing deep incisions was cut into the earlier Phoenician text The Etruscans in Italy were familiar with the Phoenician alphabet, as shown on the Pyrgi gold plates at the top and bottom of this page.
Their plate on the left was written in Phoenician, and the other one in Etruscan. After the Etruscans adopted and modified the Greek alphabet, they passed it along to Rome. The Romans made their own refinements to it, and this led to the alphabet we use today.
In this well researched and intriguing narrative, the mysterious Phoenicians and the ancient Mediterranean are experienced in rich detail. The alphabet did not arise in a vacuum. It was part of a wider social phenomenon that was spreading across the ancient Mediterranean, and reached one of its pinnacles in classical Greece.
To fully appreciate the origins and impacts of the early alphabets, it is necessary to see the flow of people and discoveries back and forth across the Mediterranean in those days.
Phoenician Secrets is one of the few books to fully capture the many social threads that were woven into this essential human creation. It explains how the success of trade and necessary inventions, including the alphabet, developed in the civilizations of the Mediterranean.Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared.
The Origins Of Civilizations. Edited By: Robert Guisepi. Ancient Egypt. Besides Mesopotamia, a second civilization grew up in northeastern Africa, along the Nile. The Energy Racket.
By Wade Frazier. Revised in June Introduction and Summary. A Brief Prehistory of Energy and Life on Earth.
Early Civilization, Energy and the Zero-Sum Game. A fairly consistent core of glyphs was used to write Classical or Middle Egyptian (ca.
BC), though during the Greco-Roman eras ( BC - ca. AD) over 5, glyphs were in use. The glyphs have both semantic and phonetic values. It was not until the nineteenth century that Egyptian hieroglyphs were timberdesignmag.coml people had been trying to crack the code when the brilliant young Frenchman, Jean-François Champollion discovered the secret to this ancient writing.
A decree issued at Memphis, Egypt, on March 27, B.C. was inscribed on the Rosetta Stone in three scripts: hieroglyphics, demotic and Greek. The Egyptian language was one of the earliest languages to be written down, perhaps only the Sumerian language is older. First appearing on stone and pottery dating from B.C.
to B.C., it remained in use for almost 3, years; the last inscription was written in A.D. Egyptian chronology can be challenging for creationists. When most people cite Ancient Egyptian history it conventionally covers the period up to the Persian occupation c.
BC, and is broken up into several distinct periods (see table).The major groupings are the Old, Middle and New Kingdoms.