Tweet A Brave New World by Aldous Huxley depicts an ordered society where humanity is tamed and controlled through the use of excessive pleasure. The society as a whole is conditioned to believe in a consistent set of values, primarily designed to keep everyone in line and the system of consumption functioning at a near perfect level of efficiency. Those are not fitting into society are encouraged to enjoy themselves by taking Soma, as its hallucinogenic and anti-depressant effects allow them to snap back into blissful conformity with ease. In essence, Huxley dreamed of a world where unimportant pleasures distract us from the greater problems at hand, and in the case of the book these problems manifested as the sheer level of control and lack of freedom exerted over all of humanity by the system.
The pervasiveness of mass media and the exposure levels of broad segments of society suggest that mass media may be an important information source regarding health and a relevant socialization force regarding health attitudes and behavior.
Nevertheless, research evidence indicates that most mass media campaigns oriented toward changing health care habits fail. The objectives of this paper are to analyze why health care campaigns fail and to derive generalizations for more effective use of mass media by health care professionals.
OVERVIEW The role of mass media in affecting knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward health care may be thought of in terms of the following two dimensions.
Mass media may impact health knowledge, attitudes and behavior both in a deliberate sense through "campaigns" that are specifically designed for such impact, and in an unintended or "incidental learning" sense through material that contains health-related information, but which is not specifically intended to impact health knowledge, attitudes or behavior.
In both cases, mass media may act either as a "change agent" or as a "reinforcing agent" -- that is, media may function in such a way as to change knowledge, attitudes and behavior or to confirm existing behavior patterns.
In these respects, the role of mass media in affecting health care is similar to their role in affecting knowledge, attitudes and behavior toward other products and services.
Examples include anti-smoking, seat belt usage, lower cholesterol, and hypertension identification campaigns. Mass media may also have unintended effects in the sense that the average viewer is exposed to a regular diet of "medical" shows on television and also to large numbers of commercials for proprietary medicines.
The learning from such programming and commercials may be in the form of "misinformation" and may not be compatible with good health habits. A national study by the Louis Harris Organizationfor example, concluded that mass media were second only to the individual's physician as a source of health information.
Furthermore, much of the health information absorbed from television is likely to be under low involvement conditions and, therefore, processed without evaluation. A logical question then is whether mass media depict an accurate profile of health, illness, and the value of medical services, drug products, or medical treatment.
Some social critics suggest that mass media depict a distorted and stereotyped view of these topics with consequences for people's health beliefs, attitudes and behavior and for their probabilities of accessing the medical system under specified conditions.
For example, to what extent does advertising for proprietary drugs convince people to search for simplistic solutions to medical symptoms that may be indicative of more serious problems?
To what extent does cigarette advertising help people to deny or sublimate the medically dangerous effects of smoking? The extent to which mass media either positively or negatively impact health is an important empirical question requiring systematic evidence to resolve.
This may suggest the magnitude of the potential problem, although this study is only one isolated piece of research evidence. Another study by Frazier et al. The hypothesis may well be that mass media act more to misinform than to educate people about health and appropriate health habits.
However, the history of communication research indicates that the most persistent finding is that mass media act mainly to reinforce existing attitudes and behavior. The ability of mass media to effect change is actually a function of a number of factors and requires certain conditions which we will develop later in this paper.
Basically, however, the probability of change tends to be a function of how much commitment people have to existing behavior patterns. Under high commitment conditions, as is frequently the case in health care, bringing about change may indeed be a difficult undertaking.
This is likely to be the case since health behavior is frequently rooted both in long term reinforcement patterns and in support by the individual's social environment. In some special cases physical and psychological addiction patterns may also be a factor with which to contend.
A look at the evidence on health care campaigns supports the statement that most health care campaigns do not succeed among large numbers of intended subjects. The literature is replete with discouraging case studies. In summarizing the evidence on obesity, Stunkard sets forth five propositions: Nevertheless, Stunkard registers considerable hope based on behavior modification programs, which recently have improved the treatment of obesity.
He implicitly rejects mass media as an important force in changing behavior. Anti-smoking campaigns have had limited success, at best.Anti-Corruption: The Global Fight is a new handbook from IIP Publications that outlines the kinds of corruption, their effects, and the ways that people and governments combat corruption through legislative and civil society actions.
Social media connects us together, like now, we're in a conversation, we can express out thoughts and share our feelings and tell the world what we want them to know, and social media is one of the best ways in doing that.
The propaganda of the National Socialist German Workers' Party regime that governed Germany from to promoted Nazi ideology by demonizing the enemies of the Nazi Party, notably Jews and communists, but also capitalists and timberdesignmag.com promoted the values asserted by the Nazis, including heroic death, Führerprinzip .
The good news is that there are plenty of positive role models you can point to that may influence your kids to make healthy choices, learn to respect others, achieve goals, and avoid anti-social behavior.
concern about the social roles of film, advertising, and other media promoted debate about how the media were becoming a social problem that were intensifying a wide range of other problems ranging from crime to growing teen pregnancies.
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