A Timeline of Agricultural Developments [all links will open in a new window] By BC In Southwestern Asia, wheat and barley were cultivated, and sheep and goats were domesticated.
Agricultural history of the United States In the 17th century, PilgrimsPuritansand Quakers fleeing religious persecution in Europe brought with them plowsharesgunsand domesticated animals like cows and pigs. These immigrants and other European colonists initially farmed subsistence crops like cornwheatryeand oats as well as rendering potash and maple syrup for trade.
Early American farmers were not self-sufficient; they relied upon other farmers, specialized craftsman, and merchants to provide tools, process their harvests, and bring them to market. American artisans developed a more relaxed less regulated version of the Old World apprenticeship system for educating and employing the next generation.
Despite the fact that mercantilistexport-heavy economy impaired the emergence of a robust self-sustaining economy, craftsman and merchants developed a growing interdependence on each other for their trades.
Silver working[ edit ] Colonial Virginia provided a potential market of rich plantations. At least 19 silversmiths worked in Williamsburg between and The best-known were James Eddy — and his brother-in-law William Wadill, also an engraver.
Most planters, however, purchased English-made silver.
The most prosperous were merchant-artisans, with a business outlook and high status. Most craftsmen were laboring artisans who either operated small shops or, more often, did piecework for the merchant artisans. The small market meant there was no steady or well-paid employment; many lived in constant debt.
Silver and other metal mines were scarcer in North America than in Europe, and colonial craftsmen had no consistent source of materials with which to work. The purity of these sources was not regulated, nor was there an organized supply chain through which to obtain silver.
As demand for silver increased and large-scale manufacturing techniques emerged, silver products became much more standardized.
For special-order objects that would likely only be made once, silversmiths generally used lost-wax castingin which a sculpted object was carved out of wax, an investment casting was made, and the wax was melted away.
The molds produced in this manner could only be used once, which made them inconvenient for standard objects like handles and buckles.
Permanent mold castingan industrial casting technique focused on high-volume production, allowed smiths to reuse molds to make exact replicas of the most commonly used items they sold. In creating these molds and developing standardized manufacturing processes, silversmiths could begin delegating some work to apprentices and journeymen.
For instance, afterPaul Revere's sons took on more significant roles in his shop,  and his silver pieces often included wooden handles made by carpenters more experienced with woodwork.
These changes, in tandem with new techniques and requirements defined by changing social standards, led to the introduction of new manufacturing techniques in Colonial America that preceded and anticipated the industrial revolution.
Late in the colonial era a few silversmiths expanded operations with manufacturing techniques and changing business practices They hired assistants, subcontracted out piecework and standardized output. The coexistence of the craft and industrial production styles prior to the industrial revolution is an example of proto-industrialization.
Factories and mills[ edit ] In the mids, Oliver Evans invented an automated flour mill that included a grain elevator and hopper boy. Evans' design eventually displaced the traditional gristmills. By the turn of the century, Evans also developed one of the first high-pressure steam engines and began establishing a network of machine workshops to manufacture and repair these popular inventions.
Inthe widow of Nathanael Greene recruited Eli Whitney to develop a machine to separate the seeds of short fibered cotton from the fibers. The resulting cotton gin could be made with basic carpentry skills but reduced the necessary labor by a factor of 50 and generated huge profits for cotton growers in the South.
Between andnew industrial tools that rapidly increased the quality and efficiency of manufacturing emerged. Simeon North suggested using division of labor to increase the speed with which a complete pistol could be manufactured which led to the development of a milling machine in InThomas Blanchard created a lathe that could reliably cut irregular shapes, like those needed for arms manufacture.
ByCaptain John H. Hall had developed a system using machine toolsdivision of labor, and an unskilled workforce to produce a breech-loading rifle —a process that came to be known as " Armory practice " in the U. The textile industrywhich had previously relied upon labor-intensive production methods, was also rife with potential for mechanization.
In the late 18th century, the English textile industry had adopted the spinning jennywater frameand spinning mule which greatly improved the efficiency and quality of textile manufacture, but were closely guarded by the British government which forbade their export or the emigration of those who were familiar with the technology.
The Beverly Cotton Manufactory was the first cotton mill in the United States, but it relied on horse power. Samuel Slateran apprentice in one of the largest textile factories in England, immigrated to the United States in upon learning that American states were paying bounties to British expatriates with a knowledge of textile machinery.
At nearly the same time as the canal was completed, Francis Cabot Lowell and a consortium of businessmen set up the clothing mills in Waltham, Massachusetts making use of water power from the Charles River with the concept of housing together production of feedstocks complete consumer processes so raw materials entered, and dyed fabrics or clothing left.
For a few decades, it seemed that every lock along the canal had mills and water wheels. InBoston Manufacturing Company built a major expansion in East Chelmsford, which was soon incorporated as Lowell, Massachusetts — which came to dominate the cloth production and clothing industry for decades.
Slater's Mill was established in the Blackstone Valleywhich extended into neighboring MassachusettsDaniel Day 's Woolen Mill, at Uxbridgeand became one of the earliest industrialized region in the United States, second to the North Shore of Massachusetts.
Slater's business model of independent mills and mill villages the " Rhode Island System " began to be replaced by the s by a more efficient system the " Waltham System " based upon Francis Cabot Lowell 's replications of British power looms.Until the 19th century, agriculture in the U.S.
shared the history of European and colonial areas and was dependent on European sources for seed, stocks, livestock, and machinery, such as it was.
That dependency, especially the difficulty in procuring suitable . Sep 30, · Top 10 Most Influential People in Agriculture and Farming History September 30, at pm 11 comments The recent death of the great Norman Borlaug inspired me to develop a list showcasing the top 10 most influential individuals in the history of agriculture and farming.
American researchers made fundamental advances in telecommunications and information technology. For example, AT&T's Bell Laboratories spearheaded the American technological revolution with a series of inventions including the light emitting diode (LED), the transistor, the C programming language, and the UNIX computer operating system.
The Robinson Library >> Agriculture >> History: A Timeline of Agricultural Developments [all links will open in a new window] By BC In Southwestern Asia, wheat and barley were cultivated, and sheep and goats were domesticated.
Dogs had been domesticated in Europe by about 10, BC. American Organic: A Cultural History of Farming, Gardening, Shopping, and Eating (University Press of Kansas, ) Rasmussen, Wayne D., ed.
Readings in the history of American agriculture (University of Illinois Press, ). History Standards; Historical Timeline — Farm Machinery & Technology 17thth Centuries.
Change from hand power to horses characterizes the first American agricultural revolution. Gang plows and sulky plows come into use.
Steam tractors are tried out. Agriculture becomes increasingly mechanized and commercialized.