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The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire was a continuation of the Roman Empire in the eastern Mediterranean area after the loss of the western provinces to Germanic kingdoms in the 5th century. Although it lost some of its eastern lands to the Muslims in the 7th century, it lasted until Constantinople—the new capital founded by the Roman emperor Constantine the Great in —fell to the Ottoman Turks in The empire was seriously weakened in when, as a result of the Fourth Crusade, its lands were partitioned and Constantinople captured, but until then it had remained a powerful centralized state, with a common Christian faith, an efficient administration, and a shared Greek culture.
This culture, already Christianized in the 4th and 5th centuries, was maintained and transmitted by an educational system that was inherited from the Greco-Roman past and based on the study and imitation of Classical Greek literature. Stages of education There were three stages of education.
The basic skills of reading and writing were taught by the elementary-school masteror grammatistes, whose pupils generally ranged from 6 or 7 to 10 years of age. The secondary-school master, or grammatikos, supervised the study and appreciation of Classical literature and of literary Greek —from which the spoken Greek of everyday life differed more and more in the course of time—and Latin until the 6th century.
His pupils ranged in age from 10 to 15 or Speaking style was deemed more important than content or original thinking. An optional fourth stage was provided by the teacher of philosophywho introduced pupils to some of the topics of ancient philosophy, often by reading and discussing works of Plato or Aristotle.
Rhetoric and philosophy formed the main content of higher education.
Literacy was therefore much more widespread than in western Europeat least until the 12th century. Secondary education was confined to the larger cities. Pupils desiring higher education almost always had to go to Constantinoplewhich became the cultural centre of the empire after the loss to the Muslim Arabs of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt in the 7th century.
Monasteries sometimes had schools in which young novices were educated, but they did not teach lay pupils. Girls did not normally attend schools, but the daughters of the upper classes were often educated by private tutors.
Many women were literate, and some—such as the hymnographer Kasia 9th century and the historian-princess Anna Comnena —c. Elementary education Elementary-school pupils were taught to read and write individual letters first, then syllables, and finally short texts, often passages from the Psalms.
They probably also learned simple arithmetic at this stage. Teachers had a humble social status and depended on the fees paid by parents for their livelihood. They usually held classes in their own homes or on church porches but were sometimes employed as private tutors by wealthy households.
They had no assistants and used no textbooks.
Teaching methods emphasized memorization and copying exercises, reinforced by rewards and punishments. Secondary education The secondary-school teacher taught the grammar and vocabulary of Classical and ecclesiastical Greek literature from the Hellenistic and Roman periods and explained the elements of Classical mythology and history that were necessary for the study of a limited selection of ancient Greek texts, mainly poetrybeginning with Homer.
The most commonly used textbook was the brief grammar by Dionysius Thrax; numerous and repetitive later commentaries on the book were also frequently used.
From the 9th century on, these books were sometimes supplemented with the Canons of Theognostosa collection of brief rules of orthography and grammar.Education - Europe in the Middle Ages: Initially, Christianity found most of its adherents among the poor and illiterate, making little headway—as St.
Paul observed (1 Corinthians )—among the worldly-wise, the mighty, and those of high rank.
But during the 2nd century ce and afterward, it appealed more and more to the educated class and to . In Medieval Europe, attitudes toward homosexuality varied by era and timberdesignmag.comlly, by at least the twelfth century to early thirteenth century, homosexuality was considered sodomy and was punishable by death.
Before the Medieval period early Romans tolerated alternative sexual practices, such as masturbation in males and females and homosexuality. In Medieval Europe, attitudes toward homosexuality varied by era and timberdesignmag.comlly, by at least the twelfth century, homosexuality was considered sodomy and was punishable by death.
Before the Medieval period early Romans tolerated alternative sexual practices, such as masturbation in males and females and homosexuality. In the schools of art, philosophy and rhetoric, the foundations of education were transmitted throughout the lands of Greek and Roman rule.
Within its educated class spanning all of the "Greco-Roman" eras, the testimony of literary borrowings and influences is overwhelming proof of a mantle of mutual knowledge. Education - Europe in the Middle Ages: Initially, Christianity found most of its adherents among the poor and illiterate, making little headway—as St.
Paul observed (1 Corinthians )—among the worldly-wise, the mighty, and those of high rank. But during the 2nd century ce and afterward, it appealed more and more to the educated class and to leading citizens.