In philosophy[ edit ] Philosophically, "individuation" expresses the general idea of how a thing is identified as an individual thing that "is not something else". This includes how an individual person is held to be distinct from other elements in the world and how a person is distinct from other persons. In Jungian psychology[ edit ] In Jungian psychologyalso called analytical psychologyindividuation is the process in which the individual self develops out of an undifferentiated unconscious — seen as a developmental psychic process during which innate elements of personality, the components of the immature psycheand the experiences of the person's life become, if the process is more or less successful, integrated over time into a well-functioning whole.
Simplistic Figure 1 overviews the Scrum approach to managing requirements where your software development team has a stack of prioritized and estimated requirements which need to be addressed Scrum calls this prioritized stack a "product backlog". There are several important points to understand: New requirements are prioritized by your project stakeholders and added to the stack in the appropriate place.
Fundamentally a single person needs to be the final authority when it comes to requirement prioritization. Although there is often many project stakeholders, including end users, managers, architects, operations staff, to name a few and the product owner is responsible for representing them all.
Each iteration a "sprint" in Scrum terminology your team pulls an iteration's worth of work off the top of the stack and commits to implementing it by the end of the iteration.
Your project stakeholders have the right to define new requirements, change their minds about existing requirements, and even reprioritize requirements as they see fit. Stakeholders are responsible for making decisions and providing information in a timely manner.
On some projects a business analystoften in the role of product owner, may take on this responsibility. Whoever is in this role will need to work together with the other stakeholders to ensure everyone is represented fairly, often a difficult task.
The priorities of non-requirement work items are either negotiated by the team with stakeholders or are addressed as part of slack time within the schedule. Many Scrum teams are now putting more than just requirements, such as defects, on their backlogs. Disciplined Agile The approach depicted in Figure 1 is fairly simplistic, a reflection of what I would consider agile construction level thinking.
Figure 2 overviews a more disciplined approach which extends the approach described above to managing the work items. This approach is the default suggested by Disciplined Agile Delivery DAD both of which reflect the real-world realities faced by agile delivery teams. There are a few interesting improvements that you should consider: Go beyond functional requirements.
We know that we do more than just implement new requirements each iteration, we often do non-requirement related work such as take training, review products of other teams, address defects I believe that defects are simply another type of requirement and so on.
The point is that more than just requirements need to be on the stack, we really need work items. Take a risk-value approach.
Disciplined agile teams recognize that there are common risks faced by development teams, risks which they want to address as soon as possible. Such risks include the need to come to stakeholder consensus early in the project, a risk which can be addressed through requirements envisioning and perhaps the development of a shared vision or project charter.
Another common risk is the need to prove that your architecture strategy, identified via architecture envisioningactually works. The most effective way to do this is to prove your architecture with working code by building an end-to-end skeleton, or steel frame, for your system which addresses the major technological risks faced by your team.
If these requirements aren't at the very top of the stack, and they often are because risk and reward value have a tendency to be co-related, then they discuss the issue with their product owner and see if they can motivate that person who is responsible for prioritization to move those requirements to the top of the stack too.
If a high-risk requirement is currently near the bottom of the stack then you should question whether that requirement is actually needed because chances are good you'll never actually get around to working on it as higher priority work will always take precedent.
Model a bit ahead. Because we know that all requirements, let alone work items in general, are not created equal we shouldn't naively assume that we should just wait to pull an iteration's worth of work off the top of the stack at the beginning of the iteration.
What if a work item is very complex, requiring a bit more thinking that what generally occurs in iteration planning sessions? Disciplined agile teams will adopt the Look-Ahead Modeling practice and look an iteration or two down the work item stack and invest the time to explore complex upcoming work items to reduce their overall project risk.
Modeling a bit ahead is called backlog grooming in Scrum, revealing some of the unnecessary conceptual coupling amongst practices in Scrum. Lean Figure 3 depicts a lean approach, common on Kanban teams, to requirements management.
The work items are viewed as potential options to be addressed in the solution, not as required work items. As an aside, the term "requirement" in IT has always been questionable at best if something is a requirement then how can some or all of it be dropped from your delivery scope?
Options are managed as a pool. Where agile teams manage work items as a prioritized queue, lean teams manage options as a pool from which they work with stakeholders to select the highest value work when they have the capacity to perform the corresponding work.
In effect prioritization is done on a just in time JIT with the team's stakeholders. This can be complex because individual stakeholders will have different priorities, so tradeoffs will need to be made, and because there may be different classes of service being supported by the team.So you want to go to business school?
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