The form used for "visually perceptible" copies—that is, copies that can be seen or read, either directly such as books or with the aid of a machine such as films —differs from the form used for phonorecords of sound recordings such as compact discs or cassettes. Form of notice for visually perceptible copies[ edit ] The notice for visually perceptible copies should contain all three elements described below. They should appear together or in close proximity on the copies. If the work is a derivative work or a compilation incorporating previously published material, the year date of first publication of the derivative work or compilation is sufficient.
Learn how to navigate copyright and intellectual property ownership smartly so you own your work, and own your future.
Copyright to Class Notes: Posted on by Kunvay Photo Credit: Even as a law student, the very idea of who owned the copyright in the written notes I took in class was not something that ever occurred to me, let alone whether I was actually committing an infringing act by lending the notes to one of my friends.
They can be shared, not just between a few friends in class, but with an infinite number of people on the World Wide Web.
This has led some US states and universities to take steps limiting just what students can do with their class notes, which raises the question of whether students, or lecturers own the copyrights? Universities and Publishers Clamp Down On Class Notes This clampdown seems to be partially in response to the widespread and lucrative business of students selling their class notes to website publishers who make this material available to others for a price.
It is now such a problem that universities have been updating their policies on intellectual property and student codes of conducts, with some establishments even going so far as to sending cease-and-desist orders to offending websites.
This prompted at least one website to stop accepting notes from students attending these establishments. While lecturers can rightly claim copyright over notes, articles, and books they write or publish, to extend this to what students write in class would seem to be tenuous at the very least.
What students write down are their notes. They have written them, used their own skill and knowledge to interpret what has been said, and they can claim ownership of them.
If infringement of copyright law extended to summaries or interpretations then journalists and reviewers would be out of work. Knowledge expression in tangible form is. Students come to university to learn and to acquire knowledge…from their lecturers. The lecturers cannot then prevent them from using that knowledge.
Furthermore, where did the lecturers receive their knowledge from? Knowledge is not copyrightable. It is the expression of knowledge in an original, tangible format that is copyrightable. For copyright to even exist at all the work must be fixed in a tangible medium.
While the notes that a professor uses to deliver his lecture may be fixed, the oral delivery of the notes are not.
For an oral lecture to receive copyright protection, it would have to be delivered verbatim from the previously written script the written script being the tangible mediumor it would need to be recorded or fixed in some other way.
Although I do not doubt that teaching methods have changed since my university days, I am sure that lecturers pressing the play button on their iTunes folder, while settling down to do The Times Crossword, or reading parrot-style from a full script, without any interaction with students is still not the way things are done.
So, to claim copyright exists in a lecture would seem to fall at the very first hurdle. So, if a lecture is not fixed in any tangible medium, can it be considered a performance for the purposes of copyright?In United States copyright law, a copyright notice is a notice of statutorily prescribed form that informs users of the underlying claim to copyright ownership in a published work.
Notes and references. A copyright notice or copyright symbol is an identifier placed on copies of the work to inform the world of copyright ownership.
While the use of a copyright notice was once required as a condition of copyright protection, it is now optional. I have read everything and still have one basic question.
I am going to convert from CS only and get an ISBN so I can do Ingram. I am just an individual indie author with no company.
The copyright holder has the right to control the use, reproduction, and distribution of those works, as well as the ability to benefit from works monetarily and otherwise. Archives must abide by these laws, which can be complex. All in all, it should only take you a few seconds to write a good copyright notice, but if you want any further guidance, here are a few examples below: Tying it Together Very quickly, here are a few examples of copyright notices that you can either work from, copy or otherwise use.
The Official Kunvay Blog While lecturers can rightly claim copyright over notes, articles, and books they write or publish, to extend this to what students write in class would seem to be tenuous at the very least. What students write down are their notes.
They have written them, used their own skill and knowledge to interpret what has been.