Neo-Assyrian period, 9th to 7th centuries BC. The earliest language written in Mesopotamia was Sumerianan agglutinative language isolate. Along with Sumerian, Semitic languages were also spoken in early Mesopotamia.
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Abstract Historical dimensions for the cubit are provided by scripture and pyramid documentation. Additional dimensions from the Middle East are found in other early documents. Two major dimensions emerge from a history of the cubit. The first is the anthropological or short cubit, and the second is the architectual or long cubit.
The wide geographical area and long chronological period suggest that cubit dimensions varied over time and geographic area. Greek and Roman conquests led to standardization. More recent dimensions are provided from a study by Francis Galton based upon his investigations into anthropometry.
Contemporary dimensions from military and civilian anthropometry for the forearm and hand allow comparison to the ancient unit.
Acquaintance with Egyptian history might have brought some awareness from the dimensions given for pyramids and temples. The cubit was a common unit in the early East.
It continues today in some locations, but with less prominence having been replaced by modern day units. Early employment of the cubit throughout the Near East showed varied dimensions for this unit. Some variants can be examined easier with reference to biblical passages.
Additional variants can also be found in numerous secular documents, but these are less known and less accessible than scripture. The cubit is based upon a human characteristic—the length of the forearm from the tip of the middle finger to end of the elbow. Many definitions seem to agree on this aspect of the unit, yet it does not produce a universal standard for there are many ways to determine a cubit.
It can be measured from the elbow to the base of the hand, from the elbow to a distance located between the outstretched thumb and little finger, or from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. These alternate descriptions further complicate the matter of determining a specific unit measure of the cubit.
Hereafter, the latter description, elbow to the tip of the middle finger, will signify the common unit.
The human figure typically male has been the basis for many dimensions. The foot is immediately recognized as an example [ 1 ]. Less commonly heard is onyx nailbut onyx remains a medical term.
The Old English ynche, ynch, unce, or inch was a thumb-joint breadth. Small wonder the cubit was initially employed for measurement given its omnipresent availability for use. We always possess the unit. Human figure units are arbitrary but universal are especially effective by their bodily reference producing a crude standard that is immediately accessable.
The cubit provides a convenient middle unit between the foot and the yard. This is a useful way of measuring cloth held center body to an outstretched hand two cubitsor across the body to both outstretched hands four cubits as specified in Exodus The English ell is a larger variant of the cubit consisting of 15 palms, cm, or 45 inches.
It is about equal to the cloth measure ell of early Scotland.Mesopotamian Naru Literature was a literary genre, first appearing around the 2nd millennium BCE, which featured a famous person (usually a king) from history as the main character in a story that most often concerned humanity's relationship with the gods.
These stories became very popular and, in. A history of Ancient Sumer (Sumeria)including its Cities, Kings, Mythologies, Sciences, Religions, Writings, Culture, Cuneiform and Contributions. The pre-history of the Ancient Near East begins in the Lower Paleolithic period.
Therein, writing emerged with a pictographic script in the Uruk IV period (c. 4th millennium BC), and the documented record of actual historical events — and the ancient history of lower Mesopotamia — commenced in the mid-third millennium BC with cuneiform records of early dynastic kings.
Cuneiform was a major accomplishment of the people of ancient Mesopotamia, and was the first style of writing on the earth.
Literature: The Epic of Gilgamesh was a story written in cuneiform about a the adventures of the ancient king of Uruk ( B.C.E.), who was two parts god and one part man.
The Mesopotamian basin was the birthplace of writing. The Cuneiform writing system developed here was the first form of communication beyond the use of pictograms. The earliest writing systems evolved independently and at roughly the same time in Egypt and Mesopotamia, but current scholarship. History >> Ancient Mesopotamia The Sumerians developed the first form of writing.
As Sumerian towns grew into cities, the people needed a way to keep track of business transactions, ownership rights, and government records.