Self-psychology; perception; memory; association of ideas; studies of dreams; paired-associate technique.
Women's Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society Students, as part of an advanced seminar, examined and wrote about the lives of these women, their intellectual contributions, and the unique impact and special problems that being female had on their careers. For information about referencing this paper - Click Here Mary Whiton Calkins Introduction A pioneer in her field, Mary Whiton Calkins was among the first generation of women to enter psychology.
Because of the many obstacles that she overcame throughout her education and career, her accomplishments and breakthroughs undoubtedly gave hope to all women struggling for equality.
While graduate education was unheard of for women beforeCalkins fought for access to Harvard1s seminars and laboratories. Her gender prevented her from receiving her Ph. With her tenacious attitude, she moved on and opened one of the first psychological laboratories in the United States at Wellesley College in She kept her faculty position at Wellesley until her retirement forty years later.
Her numerous contributions to society included the invention of the paired-associate technique for studying memory, groundbreaking research on dreams, and the development of a form of self-psychology.
Furthermore, she became the first female president of both the American Psychological Association and the American Philosophical Association.
The oldest of five children, Mary was extremely close to her New England Puritan family, especially to her mother. As the Calkins1s greatly valued education, Mary attended the local elementary school and learned German in private lessons. However, when her father, a Protestant minister, was offered a job in a town near Boston inhe uprooted the family to Newton, Massachusetts.
InCalkins ventured out on her own for the first time to attend Smith College. She was forced to stay home her Junior year, though, to tutor her younger siblings after her sister1s death in Then, as her mother1s mental and physical health began to deteriorate, Calkins took on increased responsibilities for her younger siblings, as well as her mother.
During her year home, she opted to study Greek, which was a supplement to her classics major. Finally, upon receiving degrees in both philosophy and the classics inshe returned home in order to join her family on a yearlong excursion to Europe.
While studying languages on the trip in such institutions as the University in Leipzig, Mary decided that she would return home and tutor students in Greek.
Abby Leach, an instructor from Vassar, was introduced to Calkins while in Europe and encouraged her to pursue a teaching career.
When September rolled around, Calkins1 tutoring plans were altered; she was granted the chance to teach Greek at Wellesley College, a women1s college that was located close to her family1s home Furumoto, Calkins proved her teaching skills while she instructed students in the fields of Greek, psychology, and philosophy.
That, paired with her interest in philosophy, allowed Calkins to be appointed to a newly created position in the experimental psychology department of Wellesley, though she had had no training in psychology Furumoto, Since many schools did not even admit women as students at that time, petitions were made before she was hired and she had to agree to hold the job for one year.
She also had to further her education, attending Clark University for psychology and Harvard University for philosophy. Special arrangements were made for her to attend seminars under Edmund C.
ByCalkins had set up a psychological laboratory and had also introduced scientific psychology to the Wellesley1s curriculum. From toshe attended Harvard University in addition to teaching. After she was enrolled in William James1s seminar, four men enrolled in the class dropped it in protest.
Attendance in the seminar led to individual study with James, and within a year Calkins had published a paper on association, suggesting a modification to James1s recently published Principles of Psychology.
Her paper was enthusiastically received by her mentor, who referred to it when he later revised his book. She also found herself studying in the psychological laboratory of Harvard under Hugo Munsterberg investigating the factors influencing memory Hilgard, During her return to school, her research in this area led to her invention of the paired-associate technique.
Still, she was a "guest" at Harvard, as women could not officially register; Charles Eliot, the president of Harvard, believed strongly that the two sexes should be educated separately. Although she completed all of the requirements for the Ph.
James was astonished, calling her performance "the most brilliant examination for the Ph. When Radcliffe, Harvard1s college for women, offered her a degree, Calkins politely turned down the offer, citing the fact that she had done the work at Harvard.Mary Whiton Calkins (–) was an American philosopher and psychologist.
Calkins was also the first woman to become president of the American Psychological Association. Achievements. Calkins published writings based on both philosophy and psychology. After being rejected for a degree from Harvard, Calkins continued to work and strive for equality Mary Whiton Calkins (–) was an American philosopher and psychologist born on March 30, in Hartford, Connecticut.
She was the eldest of five children. In , Dr. Calkins graduated from. Mary Whiton Calkins was the 14th President of APA and the first woman to serve in that office. Although she earned her PhD at Harvard under William James, Calkins was refused the degree by the Harvard Corporation (who continues to refuse to grant the degree posthumously) on the grounds that Harvard did not accept women.
Calkins’s writings encompass more than a hundred papers in professional journals of psychology and philosophy and several books, including An Introduction to Psychology (), The Persistent Problems of Philosophy (), which went through five editions, and The Good Man and the Good ().
Mary Whiton Calkins was born on March 30, in Hartford, Connecticut; she was the eldest of five children. She moved to Massachusetts in with her family to live for the rest of her life; this is also where she began her education.
About This Quiz & Worksheet. In this short quiz, you'll find multiple-choice questions specifically designed to test your knowledge of the biography of Mary Whiton Calkins.